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    عنوان :
    A cognitively-based exploration of language-switching in the writing performances of Iranian EFL learners
    انتشارات : دانشگاه اصفهان
    سال :1300
    زبان : Latin
    شماره سند : 232
    موضوع :
    پژوهشگر : Alibabaei
    توصیفگر لاتین : Language-switching , Writing , English as a foreign language , Iranian second language learner , Sex , Searching for second language equivalence , Revising and correcting , Planning , Establishment of coherence of ideas , Confirming vocabulary meaning
    توصیفگر فارسی :
    دانشکده :
    مقطع : M.A in English language

    استاد راهنما : Akbar Afghary
    استاد مشاور : Mohammad Hasan Tahririan
    سال دفاع : 1300
    شماره رکورد : 232
    شماره راهنما : ENG2 93
    فهرست : Table of Content


    Title Page


    Preliminaries
    1. Chapter One: Introduction

    1.1. Overview ---------------------------------------------------------------------1
    1.2. Theoretical Framework -----------------------------------------------------4

    1.3. Statement of the Problem --------------------------------------------------6
    1.4. Research Questions ---------------------------------------------------------8
    1.5. Significance of the Study --------------------------------------------------9
    1.6. Definition of Key Terms --------------------------------------------------10



    Chapter 2: Review of the Literature
    2.1. Bilingualism ----------------------------------------------------------------12
    2.1.1. Definition -----------------------------------------------------------------12

    2.1.2. Bilingual Research Dilemma --------------------------------------------14
    2.1.3. Types of Bilingualism ---------------------------------------------------15
    2.1.4. Models of Bilingualism -------------------------------------------------17

    2.1.4.1. The Balance Theory ----------------------------------------------------17

    2.1.4.2. The Think Tank Model -----------------------------------------------18
    2.1.5. Bilingualism and Language Skills -------------------------------------18

    2.1.5.1. Writing in a Foreign Language --------------------------------------20

    2.1.5.2. Theories of Foreign Language Writing -----------------------------21
    2.1.5.2.1. Product-Oriented Theory -------------------------------------------- 21
    2.1.5.2.2. Process-Oriented Theory --------------------------------------------23
    2.1.5.2.3. Pragmatic Theory ----------------------------------------------------24
    2.1.5.3. Approaches to the Teaching of Writing ------------------------------25
    2.1.5.3.1. Controlled-to-Free Approach -------------------------------------26

    2.1.5.3.2. Free-Writing Approach --------------------------------------------26
    2.1.5.3.3. Paragraph Pattern Approach ---------------------------------------27
    2.1.5.3.4. Grammar-Syntax-Organization Approach ------------------------27
    2.1.5.3.5. Communication Approach -----------------------------------------28
    2.1.5.3.6. The Process Approach ----------------------------------------------28

    2.1.6. Features of Bilingual’s Language Performance ----------------------29
    2.1.6.1. Borrowing ---------------------------------------------------------------30
    2.1.6.2. Mixing -------------------------------------------------------------------30
    2.1.6.3. Interference -------------------------------------------------------------31
    2.1.6.4. Switching ---------------------------------------------------------------32
    2.1.6.4.1. Code switching ------------------------------------------------------32

    2.1.6.4.2. Language-Switching ------------------------------------------------33
    2.1.6.4.2.1. Level of Proficiency and L-S ------------------------------------35
    2.1.6.4.2.2. Language Family and L-S ----------------------------------------37

    2.1.6.4.2.3. Task Difficulty and L-S ------------------------------------------38
    2.1.6.4.2.4. Identification of Purposes for L-S ------------------------------39
    2.1.6.4.2.5. L-S Measurement -------------------------------------------------42
    2.1.6.4.2.6. Conditions of L1 Use --------------------------------------------43

    3. Chapter Three: Methodology

    3.1. Overview -------------------------------------------------------------------48
    3.2. Methodology -------------------------------------------------------------49
    3.2.1. Participants --------------------------------------------------------------49
    3.2.2. Instrumentation ---------------------------------------------------------50
    3.2.2.1. English Proficiency Test ---------------------------------------------50
    3.2.2.2. Composing Task ------------------------------------------------------51
    3.2.3. Procedure -----------------------------------------------------------------52
    3.2.3.1. Phase 1: Warm-up Session ------------------------------------------52
    3.2.3.2. Phase 2: Think-aloud Protocol --------------------------------------53
    3.2.3.3. Phase 3: Retrospection -----------------------------------------------53
    3.2.3.4. Phase 4: Unstructured Interview ------------------------------------54
    3.2.4. Coding Procedure -------------------------------------------------------55
    3.2.5. Data Analysis ------------------------------------------------------------55

    4. Chapter Four: Results

    4.1. Overview ------------------------------------------------------------------57

    4.2. Categories of L-S ---------------------------------------------------------57
    4.2.1. Generating Ideas (GI) -------------------------------------------------59
    4.2.2. Searching for L2 Equivalence (SLE) ------------------------------61


    4.2.3. Revising and Correcting (RC) --------------------------------------63
    4.2.3.1. Structure -------------------------------------------------------------64

    4.2.3.2. Spelling --------------------------------------------------------------64

    4.2.4. Planning (P) -----------------------------------------------------------65
    4.2.5. Establishing the Coherence of Ideas (ECI) -----------------------66

    4.2.6. Confirming Lexical Meaning (CLM) ------------------------------68

    4.3. Possible Causes for L-S Behavior ------------------------------------69

    4.3.1. Linguistic Deficiency (LD) -----------------------------------------69
    4.3.2. Overload of Memory (OM) -------------------------------------------70
    4.3.3. Ease with the Native Language (ENL) ---------------------------71
    4.3.4. No Reason --------------------------------------------------------------72
    4.4. Gender and L-S Behavior ----------------------------------------------73
    4.4.1. Gender Differences in the Number of Produced Words --------73
    4.4.2. Gender Differences in L-S Categories -----------------------------74
    4.4.2.1. Statistical Analysis of Gender Difference in GI ----------------75
    4.4.2.2. Statistical Analysis of Gender Difference in SLE --------------76
    4.4.2.3. Statistical Analysis of Gender Difference in RC ---------------77
    4.4.2.4. Statistical Analysis of Gender Difference in P -----------------78
    4.4.2.5. Statistical Analysis of Gender Difference in ECI --------------79
    4.4.2.6. Statistical Analysis of Gender Difference in CLM -------------80

    4.4.3. Gender Differences in the Recognized Reasons -----------------81
    4.4.3.1. Statistical Analysis of Gender Difference in LD ---------------82


    4.4.3.2. Statistical Analysis of Gender Difference in OM -----------83
    4.4.3.3. Statistical Analysis of Gender Difference in ENL ----------84

    5. Chapter Five: Discussions, Implications, Limitations and Suggestions for Further Studies
    5.1. Overview -------------------------------------------------------------86
    5.2. Discussion of Findings ---------------------------------------------86
    5.2.1. L-S Categories ----------------------------------------------------87
    5.2.1.1. Ancillary Function in Thought Development ---------------87
    5.2.1.2. Facilitatory Function -------------------------------------------88
    5.2.1.3. Strategic Function ----------------------------------------------89
    5.2.1.4. A Possible Merge -----------------------------------------------90
    5.2.2. Reasons of L-S Behavior ----------------------------------------90
    5.2.3. Gender and L-S ---------------------------------------------------93
    5.3. Conclusions ----------------------------------------------------------93
    5.4. Implications ----------------------------------------------------------94
    5.4.1. Theoretical Implications -----------------------------------------94
    5.4.2. Pedagogical Implications ----------------------------------------95
    5.5. Limitations of the Study -------------------------------------------96
    5.6. Suggestions for Further Research ------------------------------97
    Appendix -----------------------------------------------------------99

    References ---------------------------------------------------------106





    چکیده :
    چکیده : هدف این تحقیق بررسی قالبها، الگوها و دلایل احتمالی رفتار زبان گردانی در فرایند شناختی فراگیران ایرانی زبان دوم هنگامی که درگیر فرآیند نوشتاری هستند میباشد. هدف دیگر این مطالعه بررسی تأثیرات احتمالی جنسیت بر روی الگوها، قالبها و دلایل رفتار زبان گردانی است. برای نیل به این مهم ، این تحقیق از شیوه چند روشی در جمع آوری داده ها که شامل روشهای بلند فکر کردن، باز اندیشی و مصاحبه باز است استفاده کرده است. نتایج تحلیل داده ها نشانگر وجود شش قالب و الگو برای رفتار زبان گردانی میباشد که شامل "تولید ایده" ، "جستجو برای یافتن معادل در زبان دوم" ، "بازبینی و تصحیح ساختار و هجی" ، "برنامه ریزی" ،"ایجاد انسجام بین ایده ها" و "تأیید معنایی واژگان" است. نتایج همچنین نشان می دهد که فراگیران زبان دوم سه دلیل عمده برای رفتار زبان گردانی تشخیص داده‎‎اند. این دلایل شامل "ضعف زبانی"، "بار سنگین بر روی حافظه" و "احساس راحتی با زبان مادری" است. با توجه به مسأله تأثیر احتمالی جنسیت بر روی قالبها و دلایل احتمالی رفتار زبان گردانی، نتایج کمی این تحقیق بیانگر عدم وجود رابطه آماری معنا دار (در سطح 05/0P<) در تمامی تفاوتهای مشاهده شده درتعدد وقوع رفتار زبان گردانی بین زن ومرد است.

    چکیده انگلیسی :
    Abstract This study was intended to investigate the possible patterns and expressed causes of Language-Switching (L-S) behavior in the thinking processes of Iranian EFL learners engaged in L2 composing task. It also aimed to investigate the possible influences of gender on the patterns and expressed causes of L-S. To this end, the study used a multi-method data collection consisting of thinking aloud protocol, retrospection and unstructured interview. The analysis of the data revealed six conditions for L-S including: 1) Generating Ideas, 2) Searching for L2 Equivalence, 3) Revising and Correcting, 4) Planning, 5) Establishment of Coherence of Ideas, 6) Confirming Lexical Meaning. The results also revealed three reasons, expressed by the participants for L-S occurrence including: 1) Linguistic Deficiency, 2) Overload of Memory and 3) Ease with Native Language. Regarding the possible influence of gender on the sought patterns and reasons, none of the differences in the frequency of L-S occurrence between males and females came out to be statistically significant at P<0.05. Finally, the results support "Topic Knowledge" (Freidlander, 1990) and "High Level Knowledge Demand" (Qi, 1998) as two major factors influencing L-S behavior.


    کلید واژه ها :
    ,Language-switching , Writing , English as a foreign language , Iranian second language learner , Sex , Searching for second language equivalence , Revising and correcting , Planning , Establishment of coherence of ideas , Confirming vocabulary meaning


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    صفحه اول : University of Isfahan Faculty of Foreign Languages Department of English and Literature M.A Thesis A Cognitively-based Exploration of Language-Switching in the Written Performances of Iranian EFL Learners Supervisor Dr. Akbar Afghary Advisors Dr. Mohammad Hasan Tahririan Dr. Gholam Reza Zarei By Ahmad Alibabaei Septamber 2006
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